Traditional Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino and other Jewish languages (most endangered and some now extinct) Liturgical languages Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages French, Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic, Yiddish, Russian The history of the Jews of France deals with the Jews and Jewish communities in France.There has been a Jewish presence in France since at least the early Middle Ages.France was once a center of Jewish learning, but persecution increased as the Middle Ages wore on, including multiple expulsions and returns. there were Jews at Vienne and Gallia Celtica; in the year 39 at Lugdunum (i.e.
During World War II, 75% of the Jewish population in France survived the Holocaust. Hilary of Poitiers (died 366) is praised for having fled from the Jewish society.
France has the largest Jewish population in Europe and the third largest Jewish population in the world (after Israel and the United States). A decree of the emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III, addressed to Amatius, prefect of Gaul (9 July 425), prohibited Jews and pagans from practising law and from holding public offices ("militandi"), in order that Christians should not be in subjection to them, and thus be incited to change their faith.
The Jewish community in France is estimated from a core population of 480,000-500,000 Today, French Jews are mostly Sephardi and Mizrahi who came from North Africa and the Mediterranean region after those countries became independent. At the funeral of Hilary, Bishop of Arles, in 449, Jews and Christians mingled in crowds and wept, while the former sang psalms in Hebrew.
They span a range of religious affiliations, from the ultra-Orthodox Haredi communities to the large segment of Jews who are entirely secular According to the Jewish Encyclopedia (1906), "The first settlements of Jews in Europe are obscure. From the year 465 the Church took official cognizance of the Jews.
It is known that the Christian clergy participated in their feasts; intermarriage between Jews and Christians sometimes occurred; the Jews made proselytes, and their religious customs were so freely adopted that at the third Council of Orléans (539) it was found necessary to warn the faithful against Jewish "superstitions", and to order them to abstain from traveling on Sunday and from adorning their persons or dwellings on that day.
In the 6th century, a Jewish community thrived in Paris.In 629 King Dagobert proposed to drive from his domains all Jews who would not accept Christianity, from his reign to that of Pepin the Short no further mention of the Jews is found.But in the south of France, which was then known as "Septimania" and was a dependency of the Visigothic kings of Spain, the Jews continued to dwell and to prosper.Jews were found in Marseille in the sixth century, at Arles, at Uzès, at Narbonne, at Clermont-Ferrand, at Orléans, at Paris, and at Bordeaux.These places were generally centers of Roman administration, located on the great commercial routes, and there the Jews possessed synagogues.In harmony with the Theodosian code, and according to an edict addressed in 331 to the decurions of Cologne by the emperor Constantine, the internal organization of the Jews seems to have been the same as in the Roman empire.