Also, it was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were completely subjugated, and it was during this period of time when the Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego were annexed by the Chilean State, along with Rapa Nui, expanding its influence to the inner Pacific.
The new moderate government of Patricio Aylwin thought it sensible to maintain free market policies that present-day Chile still employs.
Many debate whether the model should be modified to a more social-welfare system, or if it should be left like it currently is.
Chile is a member of both United Nations and the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) and is also a member of the OECD, the group of the most developed countries by current international standards, becoming the first country in South America to do so.
Argentina's and Chile's claims to Antarctica overlap and neither is based upon the discoveries of either nation.
Chile also voices a claim to a 1.25 million square kilometre portion of Antarctica, but given the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, no country's territorial claims to Antarctica are ever recognised or permitted to be exercised at any time.
However, Chile has an active presence in the Antarctic peninsula, and cooperates closely with other nations in activities in the Antarctica.
Chile's unusual, ribbon-like shape — 4,300 kilometres long and on average 175 kilometres wide — has given it a varied climate, ranging from the world's driest desert—the Atacama—in the north, through a Mediterranean climate in the centre, to a rainy temperate climate in the south.
The climate and other details of the far south, including the regions of Aysén and Magallanes, remain a mystery to people from central Chile.
Chile is a long, narrow country along the southern half of the west coast of South America, between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean.