Renandya (Eds.), Full official names of group authors such as associations or government agencies should be used.
Even if you obtain your article from an online database or another source, try to locate the URL of the journal's home page that provides access to the article.
Make every effort to locate the DOI - it may not be immediately obvious. If no DOI is assigned, give the URL of the journal home page if the article is available there. Cross-national comparisons of background and confidence in visual arts and music education of pre-service primary teachers. Retrieved from If you are unable to locate the DOI or the journal's home page and the article was obtained from one of the University's limited circulation database subscriptions, use the URL for the journal's entry/search page within the database (or the database's overall search page if that is not available).
When a DOI is available, no further retrieval information is needed to locate the content. Aesthetic and religious awareness among pupils: Similarities and differences.
A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique name assigned by the International DOI Foundation that provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet. Home-based intervention of preschoolers with emotional disturbances and autism.
Academic conventions and copyright law require that you acknowledge when you use the ideas of others. Use "Available from" when the URL leads to information on how to obtain the cited material (rather than to the material itself).
In most cases, this means stating which book or journal article is the source of an idea or quotation.
This guide draws from the: American Psychological Association. At the end of your essay, place a list of the references you have cited in the text.
Arrange this in alphabetical order of authors' surnames, and then chronologically (earliest publication date first) for each author where more than one work by that author is cited. Information about editions (if other than the first), series, volume numbers or chapter page ranges should be included in parentheses ( ) after the title - not in italics but before the full stop.
The author's surname is placed first, followed by initials or first name, and then the year of publication is given. Other descriptive information may also follow the title and any parenthetical information in brackets [ ] also before the full stop. Retrieved from melancholy/ Database information may be given for books (monographs) of limited circulation (e.g.