The first pre-historic settlements were constructed in 3000 BC around the hill of Acropolis.The legend says that the King of Athens, Theseus unified the ten tribes of early Athens into one kingdom (c. This process of synoikismos – bringing together in one home – created the largest and wealthiest state on the Greek mainland, but it also created a larger class of people excluded from political life by the nobility.By the 7th century BC, social unrest had become widespread, and the Areopagus appointed Draco to draft a strict new code of law (hence "draconian").
This was the great beginning of a new social revolution, which was the result of the democracy under Clisthenes (508 BC).
During the Middle Ages, Athens experienced a decline, but re-emerged under Byzantine rule.
Athens was thriving and prosperous during the Crusades, actually benefiting from the Italian trade during this period.
However, this fruitful period was shortlived, as Greece suffered badly under the Ottoman Empire, only to recover in the 19th century as the capital of independent Greece.
Athens (Greek: Αθήνα, Athína), is the capital city of Greece with a metropolitan population of 3.7 million inhabitants.
It is in many ways the birthplace of Classical Greece, and therefore of Western civilization.The design of the city is marked by Ottoman, Byzantine and Roman civilizations.The sprawling city is bounded on three sides by Mt Ymettos, Mt Parnitha and Mt Pendeli; whilst inside Athens are twelve hills [the seven historical ones are: Acropolis, Areopagus, Hill of Philopappus, Observatory Hill (Muses Hill), Pnyx, Lykavittos (Lycabettus), Tourkovounia (Anchesmus)], the Acropolis and Lykavittos being the most prominent.These hills provide a refuge from the noise and commotion of the crowded city streets, offering amazing views down to Saronic Gulf, Athens' boundary with the Aegean Sea on its southern side.The streets of Athens (clearly signposted in Greek and English) now meld imperceptibly into Piraeus, the city's ancient (and still bustling) port.Places of interest to travellers can be found within a relatively small area surrounding the city centre at Syntagma Square (Plateia Syntagmatos).